Саратовский государственный технический университет
Министерство образования Российской Федерации Саратовский государственный технический университет
Методические указания к контрольной 6 для студентов заочной формы обучения специальности СР
Одобрено редакционно-издательским советом Саратовского государственного технического университета СГТУ
Контрольная работа № 6
Тема: Способы передачи см еловой информации текста.
Передача содержали научно-технической информации в форме аннотации и перевода.
Содержание понятого текста может быть изложено в форме перевода (устного или письменного), аннотации, реферата и др.
face - лицо
Термин может состоять из одного слова (унитерм) или из группы слов (существительного с предпозитивным или постпозитивным определениями):
factor - унитерм
factor of merit - добротность (двукомпонентный термин с постпозитивным определением - of merit)
lethal factor - летальный ген (двукомпонентный термин с предпозитивным определением - lethal)
Глаголы, наречия и прилагательные самостоятельными терминами не являются.
Искать русский эквивалент термина следует в отраслевом словаре, например:
Термины-словосочетания в большинстве отраслевых словарей следует искать по родовому (главному) слову, а не по видовому (правое или левое определение).
factor (родовое слово) - фактор
~ of merit - добротность
accumulation ~ - норма размещения (больных)
aging ~ - вероятность доживания
anticrodyma ~ - витамин В6
growth-promoting ~ - стимулятор роста
lethal ~ - летальный ген
Accumulation, aging, anticrodynia, growth-promoting, lethal - видовые слова - предпозитивное определение к существительному factor. Of merit - постпозитивное определение к существительному factor. Как правило, родовое слово в словаре выделяется шрифтом.
2. Передача содержания текста в форме аннотации
Аннотированием называется процесс составления кратких сведений, характеризующих книгу или статью. По содержанию и целевому назначению аннотации подразделяются на справочные и рекомендательные.
Справочные аннотации дают представление лишь о тематике и проблематике публикации и сообщают библиографические данные. Рекомендательные аннотации содержат также оценочные элементы: указание на ценность первичного документа или его недостатки, круг читателей, на который рассчитана публикация, оценку актуальности материала, К аннотации предъявляются следующие требования: лаконичность языка, использование простых предложений, строгая логическая структура, использование безличных конструкций (...сообщается, излагается..., ... описывается,... упоминается).
Образец аннотации справочного типа:
Reference: The social worker and child protection agency. Социальный работник и агентство социальной защиты. Department of health. Protecting children. A Guide for social workers undertaking a comprehensive assessment London: Her Majesty's Stationary office. Crown copyright 1988, ISBN 0 11 321159 7, p. 10, 2200 characters.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the role of a social worker in child protection agencies. Here discussed are problems of duties of a social worker in a child protection agency, ensuring the child's protection, promotion child's physical, emotional and intellectual health and development, keeping up to date with child care legislation. Conclusions are made on the activity-based approach and skills in the direct work with children.
Keywords: child protection, physical development, emotional health, intellectual development.
В представленном образце подчеркнуты клише (устойчивые сочетания).
Список клише для аннотирования:
1. Ознакомьтесь со справочной информацией к контрольной работе № 6. Письменно ответьте на вопросы:
а) Чем справочная аннотация отличается от рекомендательной аннотации?
б) Что такое унитерм? Приведите пример двухкомпонентного термина.
в) Назовите отраслевой словарь, которым Вы будете пользоваться для перевода терминов.
3. Выпишите термины и терминологические сочетания и переведите их, пользуясь отраслевым словарем (10-15 слов, словосочетаний).
4. Письменно переведите текст.
6. Задайте по одному вопросу к каждой части, так чтобы они стали пунктами плана.
7.Передайте информацию текста в форме справочной аннотации на английском языке письменно (см. образец).
What do you know about SLEEP?
Sleep is something about which we know remarkably little. A great deal of bodily function continues while you are asleep and it seems to be only the higher part of the brain which blacks out. Your heart beats at a slower rate and you lose heat more slowly. Normally your muscles relax and, provided they are relaxed, there is no harm in any attitude you like to adopt. The time that you sleep varies with your age. A newborn baby sleeps nearly 24 hours, a child of three normally 12 hours, during the "teen-ages" nine to ten hours is average. You cannot make a child sleep longer than Nature intends and nowadays we think it is harmful to force a child to stay in bed when he is not sleepy. A fair amount of evidence shows that you need a great deal less sleep at night in old age.) A good deal of an individual's ability to sleep is due to habit, and it is a habit which can be changed reasonably easy. In fact, workers who change their shift from day to night do not show any more ill-health than other workers. The complaint of sleeplessness, however, is a very general one. Insomnia, as it is called, can be described as a failure to sleep when sleep can both be expected and desired as apart from the many things which can keep a person awake - a pain or cough. There is a very large nervous element in this type of insomnia. A widespread belief, which has no scientific grounding whatever, is that this sort of sleeplessness will lead to insanity. This mental worry, coupled with the inability to concentrate which the sleeplessness produces, makes the patient’s condition much worse. They should not take a heavy meal within four hours of going to bed but have, instead, a very light supper. Obviously, stimulants such as tea or coffee should be avoided before going to bed.
6,000 girls choose love and the waltz
Six thousand girls aged 14-19 have answered, under the cloak of anonymity, the most candid quiz yet formulated on what they like, what they do, and what they want to do. With one voice they put dancing as their top favorite, followed closely by love films and stories, and crime thrillers. Encouraged by the secrecy imposed by their quiz-mistresses - the National Association, of Girls’ Clubs - the atom-age girls, some still at school, shake many "expert" notions about themselves. Only DANCING finds them unanimous. Every girl tipped it as her favorite pastime. LOVE - celluloid or printed - is a close second. The quiz makes it obvious that modem girls read much more than their elders suspect, and love stories and films are first in their affections. Love takes first place in every age-group except among girls still at school. ADVENTURE and CRIME, including the strongest Edward G. Robinson fare, are the next favourites. BOY FRIENDS. - Scientists have long believed that girls like their boy friends to be two years older than themselves, but in this quiz girls of 14 prefer boys of 15, and the 19-year-olds have boys aged 20. RADIO AND MUSIC - and even comic papers - are other favorites. Modem girls read the newspapers much more diligently than then elders used to at the same age. Every 16-year-old gives newspapers a high place, usually fourth or fifth, on her list, and the consistent interest of all the girls in the news is a big surprise to the research committee who framed the questions. But M. P.s will not be flattered to learn that the modem girl is apparently just not interested in politics. Only three in 100 girls of 15 belong to a party, 16 in 100 aged 16 - and none aged 19. Yet their trade unions are affiliated to the T.U.C. (Trade Union Council) and the Labour Party.
It is difficult for the person who speaks easily and smoothly even to imagine the sufferings of 1,500,000 men, women and children in the United States who are afflicted with stuttering. Speech is a normal human faculty and, ordinarily, words formed in the mind flow freely and almost automatically from the lips. But when those who stutter attempt to speak we see what a complex process utterance is. There seems to be a spasm in the vocal cords, trouble in breathing, trembling of the tongue and lips together with visible contractions of the muscles of the face, neck and shoulders. Sometimes during the attempt to speak, breath is drawn in instead of being blown out. We still have much to have about the causes of stuttering. Many answers have been given but most of them remain mere theories without the actual proof needed to support them. It does seem evident, however, that stuttering is connected with some disturbance of the emotions. Sometimes stuttering may be brought on by an accident or a severe shock. Children who have been separated from their parents and are thus emotionally disturbed may begin to stutter. If the home surroundings are filled with excitement and emotional tension the children may develop stuttering. Stuttering is not just a bad habit which can be overcome by speech training and exercise. Rather, it is an indication of disturbed emotions which need adjustment. The fact that a person stutters is no sign that his intelligence is in any way abnormal. It would appear that stuttering runs in families. Often when children first begin to talk they may frequently repeat words or part of words. They do this because they talk faster than they can produce the different sounds. This is not abnormal and is no cause for concern. In treating actual stuttering, building up the patient's general health and avoiding physical and mental strain are important. Some actual speech training is also of value. It is helpful to teach the patient to relax all of the muscles of the body. However, the most important part of the treatment is to correct the emotional instability. It may be necessary to change the patient's environment, to find outlets for developing the good points of his character and to change his social contacts. It is possible, with proper treatment, to cure stuttering completely.
Can FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) Act in Lynching?
The recent lynching of four Negroes in Monroe, Ga. (Georgia), once again calls attention to the problem of civil rights in this country. The Department of Justice is busy now preparing suggestions on how the civil rights of Americans can be broadened and better protected. FBI men - sent into Georgia by the Justice Department to investigate the lynching - so far have made no arrests. They can't, unless they find the lynching in some way violated Federal law. There is no Federal law against lynching. An anti-lynching bill has been pending in Congress several years. But Southern Congressmen, have blocked it. Lynching is murder. But unless some Federal law is violated, the crime is solely a problem for the police in the state where the lynching occurs. By rooting around long enough, it's possible the FBI men in Georgia may find evidence that the lynching at Monroe did violate a Federal law which does not specifically say anything about lynching. They'd have to find that the lynching violated the Negroes' civil rights under the Constitution. Here's how: Under the U.S. Constitution, citizens are guaranteed certain civil rights against interference by the Federal or state governments. For example: The Federal Government can not deny you religious freedom, free speech, free press or free assembly. No state can deprive you of the right to vote, no matter what your race, color or creed. And the 14th Amendment to the Constitution says no state can deprive you of your life, liberty or property without due process of law. Which means: Court action and a fair trial. But this 14th Amendment also says: No state shall "deny any person with-iii its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." After looking over all the civil rights guaranteed the Georgia Negroes under the Constitution, the only way in which the FBI could make arrests would be this: If they found that some Georgia official conspired in some way with the lynch mob in the killing of the four Negroes. In that case, the official would have violated the 14th Amendment by not giving the Negroes the protection guaranteed by the Constitution. This may seem a round about way for the Government to have to clear up a crime which shocked the nation. But the states have always jealously guarded themselves against too much interference in their affairs by the Federal Government.
Beauty and You
Young girls are likely to experiment with many cosmetics - rouges, foundation tints and bases, face powders. And they are likely to be very careless about skin care. A nifty combination of habits to grow a good crop of minor blemishes and to ruin what skin beauty nature endowed them with. The best way to help nature to care for your skin is to give it thorough cleansings. Begin with a cream cleansing (if you use makeup and such); remove it with tissue. Then put on a thicker layer of cleansing cream and massage that into the skin for several minutes. Remove with tissue. Then for a good scrubbing. Moisten the bristles of your complexion brush (every young lady should boast possessing one) in hot, sudsy water and work up a good, soap lather on your face by scrubbing in circles. Use as much of the soap suds as you need and pay particular attention to your nose, your chin, mouth comers, and high on your cheek bones - the areas where whiteheads and blackheads like to crop out! Rinse your skin well in alternate hot and cold waters—rinse until it squeaks from cleanliness. Dry by patting. If the weather is mild go out and sun your face for 15 or 20 minutes without a thing on it. Not in the hot sun, mind you, I said a mild sun. Such an airing is marvelous for your complexion. If your skin has begun to blemish slightly, do without cosmetics for a couple of weeks—a lipstick you may use, of course—but no creams (other than a cleanser) and no makeup. Never go to bed without first washing your face with soap and water. Even face powder requires soap to be removed. Let the air on your skin all night—-it is good for it.
They talked of prolonged binges and lost weekends they had known. There were drinks for all—straight or mixed. Steaming hot coffee—Mack or with cream. The Anchorage group of Alcoholics Anonymous was in session. Attending the A.A. meeting were clean-shaven, well-dressed men. All were stone sober. They were united together in the farthest west and north group of Alcoholics Anonymous on the North American continent, working to stay sober, and to help others stay sober. Organized in Anchorage last October with one member, Alcoholics Anonymous has made slow, steady progress in the city. The group now holds two meetings a week in quarters known only to members, who, as the name implies, remain anonymous as far as the public is concerned. The common bond that brings A.A. members together is a desire to fight against their weakness—addiction to alcohol. A.A. members describe themselves as pathological drinkers in contrast to social drinkers. They cannot take alcohol They frankly admit that it makes them sick physically, mentally and spiritually. In looking back over the tortuous trail that led them to Alcoholics Anonymous, the members talked of their bouts with alcohol—bouts that they invariably lost Their weird reports of being lost in alcoholic swamps made new members realize that if they are willing to help themselves there is always hope. A. A. members describe alcohol as poison. It may not be poison to non-pathological drinkers, but as far as they are concerned it carries the mark of skull and cross- bones. They do not condemn those who drink and can handle liquor; they wish they could, but are honest in admitting they can't. Like its parent organization which is international in scope, Anchorage's Alcoholics .Anonymous is nonpolitical, non-sectarian and not a temperance organization. It is open to all— men and women, young and old.
THE RISE AND FALL OF UNCLE TOM
Twenty years ago the white townsfolk of Natchitoches, Louisiana, deep in the heart of the cotton-growing Black Belt, gathered at the comer of Washington and Lafayette Streets to pay tribute to the Negroes of the state. When the unveiling took place, it was evident whom the white burghers of Natchitoches were glorifying. The inscription on the bronze statue of a bent, careworn, cheerful old Negro, hat in hand, read: "Erected by the city of Natchitoches in Grateful Recognition of the Arduous and Faithful Service of the Good Darkies of Louisiana." It is good that the white citizens of Natchitoches saw fit to honor the “Good Darkies” who did so much since the earliest days of Lousiana to make the state worth in for its white dwellers. Like statues ought to be erected by other Deep South states— not only because of the great contributions that Negroes made as slaves and freedmen but also because the day of the legendary "Good Darky" is fading. Before long he will be a relic, his memory preserved only in history books and by the Natchitoches statue. The dramatic wartime upsurge of Negro America has stiffened the backbone of many colored citizens, giving them not only new faith and belief in democracy but a vast new army of white allies who are united with them to make a democracy for all of the American people, regardless of color. No longer satisfied with a democracy on paper only, the Negro has become the foremost U. S. exponent of the Constitution, the Declaration of Independence and other venerable American documents. His resentment and rage over the failings of the republic stamp him as the American most dedicated to the heritage and tradition of Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln. And so today the Negro who kowtows and kneels is finding fewer and fewer friends, not only among Negroes, but also among whites. The "Good Darky" is coming on bad times. Uncle Tom and Aunt Jemima are headed for oblivion just as surely as in Jim Crow. It may take time—perhaps too much time—but the day when the "Good Darky" statue of Natchitoches is a thing of the past and Negro America can shout "Uncle Tom is dead" may well come in the lifetime of many darker brothers of today.
Have You A Problem?
Dear miss X: I am engaged to a young man who possesses many of the qualities that a girl hopes to find in her prospective husband. He is nice-looking, well educated, financially stable, ambitious, with a fine position, good sense of humor, etc. However, he has a couple of traits which now and then cause conflict between us. And although these conflicts are minor now, I wonder if they might eventually develop into major issues if we many. These traits are: 1. excessive thrift, sometimes carried to the point of embarrassment; 2. lack of enthusiasm about going out for a social evening. He seems to have a complex about saving his money for future security, and as a result he is willing to forego many simple customary pleasures which he could enjoy today. Now about myself: I was brought up to appreciate the value of a dollar. I never make undue demands, and, in fact, go to the opposite extreme of considering his purse. And while I don’t have the inclination to be "on the go” continually I think it’s nice to go out a moderate amount. However, he much prefers to stay home. He is frank to tell me that his greatest enjoyment is found in staying home, holding me in his arms, so there’s not much sense (he says) in going out. In discussing these points of difference, we never reach any agreement. I'd be willing to strike a compromise in everything but I don’t belive I'd be happy conceding completely. In your opinion, is he a good matrimonial risk for me?
DEAR F.R.: Reading between the lines of your story, one infers the young man is the slave of an anxiety neurosis, which accounts, on the one hand, for his ambitious, tight-fisted security drive; and inhibits him, on the other hand, from developing a normal repertory of social interests or spending hospitably on other folks. .Also, one gathers that your supposedly sentimental interest in him is no more than skin-deep. A dash of mutual sex appeal is the most you have in common. In my opinion, the points of difference you describe constitute a major —in fact, an insuperable—handicap to getting along.
You've got to make a profit
ADMITTEDLY this is an article about an unpopular subject. But in my experience Americans will always give attention to a subject however unpopular if it affects them deeply. And this does. A big question now confronting this nation is whether- we are going to continue our own economic system or exchange it for some other which is either untried or has been used for more than a generation elsewhere without producing the results promised of it. The system under which this country has developed, and which has enabled us to outstrip the world in production and per capita enjoyment of manufactured goods, is the capitalistic system. I believe in the capitalistic system. I think it is the best and perhaps only practical basis on which men can be organized to get necessary work done, and at the same time be free to do, say, think—and buy—what they like. This system at present seems to be under attack from a variety of sources. In exchange for the real advantages of capitalism we are being offered a show window filled with tempting possibilities. But the price tags are carefully hidden. As everybody knows, an integral part of the capitalistic economy is the profit system; or more strictly, the profit and loss system. Hope of profits and fear of loss are principally what make capitalism work. Precisely because they are so much the -key to its operation, a large part of the attack on capitalism in recent years has been directed at profits. Profit-taking has been made to seem synonymous with greed. Industrialists have been pictured as men who will seize every advantage—honest or dishonest—for the sake of profit. Profits have been described as an added charge saddled onto the cost of everything; a charge for which the public gets no return. I think it can be shown that this is not so. Webster defines profit as the "excess of returns over expenditure.” In the capitalistic system this is only part of the definition; it completely ignores the dynamic role that industrial profits play in the economy. The important thing is that the hope of profit is what gets the job done with the minimum expenditure of man-hours and materials.
PEOPLE WITHOUT WORK
For millions of Americans, work is a problem because they have none. The money, self-respect, and routine that work provides do not exist for them. The number of officially unemployed Americans has varied in the last four decades. Changing economic conditions determine whether unemployment increases or decreases. Many people who want to work but cannot find jobs are excluded from the statistics. Among them are the following: people who work part-time but want and need full-time work; those reentering the work force (such as mothers who took time off to raise young children) but have yet to find a job; people on welfare, prisoners, and older people whom employers will not hire. At any given time, the actual unemployment rate is at least twice the official rate. The effects of unemployment are devastating. They hit poor and working class families the hardest. Depression, lower self-esteem, illness, and suicides ail increase. In various surveys, workers report they cannot sleep, they smoke and drink more. We may think that unemployment benefits soothe the pain and lessen financial hardships. They do to some degree. But very often less than a half receive them. With temporary exceptions, unemployment has been a permanent feature of the US economy. It exists primarily for two reasons. First, the existence of millions of unemployed people tends to prevent most of those working from asking for higher wages since they can be replaced easily. Second in their search for profits, corporations move to wherever labour is cheapest.
Подготовьтесь к устному сообщению по теме “My Future Speciality”
Evening-and-Correspondence Department - факультет вечерее-заочного обучения
to train engineers - готовить инженеров
a second-year student - студент второго курса
Industrial Ecdnomics - Экономика и управление в машиностроении /ЭУМ/
Manufacturing Engineering - Технология машиностроения /тмс/
Automobile Engineering - Автомобили и автомобильное хозяйство /ААХ/
Material Handling and Road Engineering - Подъемно-транспортные, строительные и дорожные машины /ПСМ/
Civil and Industrial Engineering - Промышленное и гражданское строительство /ПГС/
Heat Power Engineering - Промышленная теплоэнергетика /ПТЭ/
Electrical Power Engineering - Электроснабжение промышленных предприятий /ЭПП/
Plastic and Elastomer Production Engineering - Технология переработки пластмасс и эластомеров /ТПЭ/
Social Work - Социальная работа /СР/
in the first year - на первом курсе
general educational subjects - общеобразовательные предметы
special subjects - специальные предметы
specialization - специализация
to specialize in - специализироваться
to master - овладеть
principles - основы
graduates - выпускники
I am a third-year student of the Balakovo Polytechnical Institute of the Saratov Technical University. • I study at the Evening-and-Correspondence department. It is the oldest faculty of our institute.* It was founded in 1957. The faculty trains engineers in nine specialities, such as Industrial Economics, Social Work, Heat Power Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Automobile Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Plastic and Elastomer Production Engineering, Civil and Industrial Engineering, Material Handling and Road Engineering.
Social Work is the newest speciality. It is both interesting and important. This kind of human activity comes from the Bible times. But there is still an urgent need for social work.' Process of differentiation of our society is very quick now. So poor, homeless, lonely, sick, disabled, addict and abused need some kind of specialized help. That needs people of special training. That’s why social work has become a profession now; Specialists of social work are needed everywhere. They work as counselors, social teachers and psychologists in community-care committees of the Town Administration, at departments of social development of industrial enterprises, at social security and psychological support centers, at hospitals and residential homes, at employment agencies, and colleges schools. This work requires both general and special taming. In the first, second and third years students study history, foreign languages, ethics, ethnology, philosophy, psychology, culturelogy and many other general educational subjects: They have a good library at their disposal. Specialization begins in the fourth year. ЛЬ master this speciality we must study special subjects such as theory and technique of social work, community care management, elements of economies, social psychology, pedagogics, law, family study, social statistics and others. Graduates of our faculty get theoretical knowledge and practical skills „in preventing and solving personal, family and community problems. I am greatly interested in my future speciality. And I hope to become an experienced specialist in the nearest future.
2. Ознакомьтесь с вариантом диалога
- Hi, Helen. Where do you study?
- I'm a third year student of the evening-and-correspondence department of the Balakovo Polytechnics! Institute of the Saratov Technical University.
- What is your future speciality?
- Til be a social worker. My speciality has become of great importance nowadays, as you know.
-I know that people of your speciality are needed everywhere.
- Certainly. Graduates of our faculty can work as counselors or social teachers and in community care committees of our Town Administration and at departments of social development and support of industrial enterprises, at social security and psychological support centers, at hospitals and residential homes, at employment agencies, schools and colleges and other educational and rehabilitation centers.
- Oh, I see, your speciality is very interesting and useful.
- Right you are. This kind of human activity comes from the Bible times. Poor, homeless, lonely, disabled, addict and abused need specialized help. I hope to contribute my theoretical knowledge and practical skills to preventing and solving personal, family and community problems and to become an experienced specialist in the nearest future.
10. Is your speciality of great importance nowadays?
V. Составьте свой вариант рассказа по теме.
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